Visit the APA site for detailed information.

Click here to watch the tutorial.
In the tutorial you will learn how to structure and format your paper,
create headings, cite references in the text, and create the reference list.

Visit the site of the Purdue Online Writing Lab for more APA style assistance.

Click here for examples of APA citations for many different types of resources.

APA References Guidelines

  • Label this page References centered at the top of the page.
  • All text should be double-spaced.
  • Use a hanging indention: the first line of each entry is flush left, and subsequent lines in the entry are indented. The best way to do this is to choose hanging indention in the options for formatting paragraphs.
  • Authors' names are inverted (last name first); give the last name and initials for all authors of a particular work for up to and including seven authors. Commas separate author names, while the last author name is preceded by an ampersand.
  • Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
  • The publication year goes between parentheses, followed by a period.
  • If you have more than one article by the same author(s), list in order by the year of publication, starting with the earliest.
  • When referring to books, chapters, articles, or Web pages, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles.
  • Italicize titles of books. Italicize titles of journals, and follow the title by the volume number which is also italicized.
  • Indicate the issue number in parentheses after the volume. The parentheses and issue number are not italicized.
  • Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles or essays in edited collections.
  • The series title should be included immediately following the book title and should not be italicized.
  • For a chapter in an edited book, after the chapter title type In, the editor’s name, the abbreviation Ed. In parenthesis, the title of the book, and then the page number of the chapter in parenthesis.
  • When you list the pages of the chapter or essay in parentheses after the book title, use "pp." before the numbers: (pp. 1-21). This abbreviation, however, does not appear before the page numbers in periodical references, except for newspapers.
  • For a print article obtained from an online database, provide appropriate print citation information. Place the article DOI (digital object identifier) at the end of the entry. If there is no DOI, provide the database URL at the end of the entry preceded by the words Retrieved from. Do not put a period at the end of the DOI or the URL.
  • For a website provide the URL at the end of the entry preceded by the words Retrieved from.

Basic Format for Books
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.